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Era's Journal of Medical Research

miRNA AND CANCER METASTASIS

      The simple perception that cancer killed a patient because it had spread, is not simple, rather is too complicated to be fully understood till date. This was revealed rst by the investigators who were trying to investigate this process in detail. The idea that tumor cells got deposited in the nearby areas by direct access and to distant organs via blood stream was again found to be a simplistic conclusion. A deeper insight on the process exposed the shallowness of our thinking because body's tissue and cell network were too dense to allow any cell to just get-in, in its midst and/or allow a simple walking or strolling of a malignant rogue amongst it's domain.
The next level of metastasis riddle was as to why in most tumors, the cells metastasize to certain specic organ-sites. But why at specic sites only a cancer deposits its cells. In 1889, Stephan Paget's had proposed a hypothesis (seed and soil theory) revolving around soil (specic organ) and seed (cancer cell) theory. Today this has been given a different perspective: “it is due to micro-environment” of that organ or tissue where the cancer cells deposits and thrive. However which factors precisely govern this mechanism, needs further investigations.
As if this all was not enough trouble to bother the scientic investigators, some bright mind showed that this activity and process is not only at local level but, there is a high command (very much like in political parties), which nally sends its dictat transmitted through its messengers, that is genetic material here in the form of DNAs, RNAs and miRNA which controls signals.
Moreover, these malignant cells, like terrorist in our society, not only followed pre-determined sets of rules in shape of modules; but also moved singly and independently like lone wolf; hid amidst normal people (cells and tissues here), dare to survive in adversaries, kept increasing its capacity and capability, then strike at best amplitude when nobody was suspecting.
This migration of single and independent tumor malignant cell takes place in the very early course of the malignant tumor's life cycle.
Now, where do we stand today with all this early speculations and insights gained We now know for sure that we could not treat or completely eradicate some malignant tumors because sometimes our troops of medicines could not kill all the tumor cells, rather some cells quietly escape, in the very early stage of a malignant tumors development, hid and wait for circumstances to become right to re-emerge.
Thus the tumor metastasis has come to be understood as a very complex process, controlled by genetic domain in the body through micro-RNAs which either up-regulate or down-regulate the suppresser or proto-onco gene.
There are genes and local micro-environmental factors which help via “Epithelial myo- epithelial transmission”, (EMT) and/or its reverse process, “myo-epithelial transmission (MET).
These tumor cells have surface receptors as markers which help in these on-going processes.
There are substances, molecules and signals which loosen the tight web network between cells to allow these malignant cells to move. There are still other substances which disrupt the intact basement membranes which act like a wall preventing cells to move away.
Paradoxically at times our own chemotherapeutic management helps create favorable environment for tumor cells to grow after developing resistance.
Therefore to understand tumor metastatic process more and more investigations are needed through biochemical and molecular biology studies, associated with genetic processes including micro- RNA based control and epigenetic inuences governing metabolic pathways regulated by miRNAs.


Prof. A.N. Srivastava
Director Research
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Lucknow
Email: anscsmmu@gmail.com


Prof. A.N. Srivastava (Editor in Chief ) View in PDF

INDEXING Crossref DOI prefix : 10.24041

  • ebsco
    EBSCO
  • index copernicus
    INDEX COPERNICUS
  • crossref
    CROSSREF
  • DRJI
    DRJI
  • I2OR
    I2OR
  • innospace
    INNOSPACE
  • rootindexing
    ROOTINDEXING
  • Avicenna Scientific
    AVICENNA SCIENTIFIC
  • PIF
    PIF

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Era's Journal of Medical Research: Volume-4 Number-1

Original Article
1.

LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS A NOVEL TECHNIQUE USING TITANIUM CLIPS OUR EXPERIENCE
Rahul Kenawadekar
A.S. Gogate
Vandana A Frigate
Santosh Hajare
Dr. G. Varun
Department of Surgery & Anaesthesiology
Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka, India - 590001

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2.

COMPARISON OF T-TUBE DRAINAGE VERSUS PRIMARY CLOSURE OF COMMON BILE DUCT AFTER CHOLEDOCHOTOMY IN CASE OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS
Nisar Ahmad Ansari
Department of Surgery
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College
Maham Ahmad
Osman Musa Hingora
Department of Surgery
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

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Review Articles
1.

TOTAL CREATINE KINASE AND ITS ISOENZYMES IN CORD BLOOD OF FULL TERM NEWBORNS
Asfia Khan
Brijesh Rathore

Department of Biochemistry
Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

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2.

LUNG CANCER STEM CELLS-AN UPDATE
A.N Srivastava
Neema Tiwari
Department Of Pathology
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

Shailendra Yadav
Department of CTVS
King George Medical University, Lucknow, India - 226003

Suryakant
Department Of Pulmonary Medicine
King George Medical University, Lucknow, India - 226003

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3.

USES AND PROSPECTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD
Dr. Sunil Dhawan
Department of Nutrition & Zoology
Era's Lucknow College Of Management & Education

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Case Reports
1.

ABERRANT FORM OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE IN FULMINANT EMPHYSEMATOUS HEPATITIS WITH POLYMICROBIAL INFECTION
Jemima D Kinsley
Parameeswaran Nisheeth T
Gnanaprakasam Francis
Srinivas CN
Department of Microbiology
MIOT Hospitals, Chennai, India

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2.

MAYER-ROKITANSKY-KUSTER-HAUSER (MRKH) SYNDROME WITH BEHAVIOURAL DISTURBANCE AND MENTAL RETARDATION - A CASE REPORT
Deeptanshu Agarwal
A.Q. Jilani
Priyadarshi Srivastava
S. B. Gupta
Anju Agarwal
Ajay Kohli
Department of Psychiatry
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

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3.

PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME POSITIVE CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA IN CHILDHOOD: A RARE CASE REPORT
Kshama Tiwari
Sharique Ahmad
Amrisha Jaiswal
Sania Zahra Rizvi
Syed Riaz Mehd
Department of Pathology
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow- 226003

Kshitij Tewari
Department of Pathology
Vivekanand Hospital, Varanasi

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Short Communications
1.

STATIN THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL DRUG OF OUR TIMES: A COMMENTARY
Dr. Mrinal Rajan Srivastava
Dr. Anu Chandra

Department of Community Medicine
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

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2.

DIAGNOSIS IN A SPIT : A SHORT REVIEW
Sonia Jaiswal
P.K Sharma

Department of Anatomy
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

Shirin Jahan
R.K Srivastava

Department of Anatomy
Rama Medical College and Hospital, Rama University, Kanpur

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Book Review :
1.

PRACTICAL PATHOLOGY(WITH VIVA VOCE)
S. Riaz Mehdi
Department of Pathology
Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Sarfarazganj, Lucknow, India - 226003

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