• ICV 2015:77.31
  • ICV 2016:92.32
  • IF of EJMR :4.34(SJIF-2016)
  • IF of EJMR :5.035(SJIF-2017)

      The simple perception that cancer killed a patient because it had spread, is not simple, rather is too complicated to be fully understood till date. This was revealed first by the investigators who were trying to investigate this process in detail. The idea that tumor cells got deposited in the nearby areas by direct access and to distant organs via blood stream was again found to be a simplistic conclusion. A deeper insight on the process exposed the shallowness of our thinking because body's tissue and cell network were too dense to allow any cell to just get-in, in its midst and/or allow a simple walking or strolling of a malignant rogue amongst it's domain.
The next level of metastasis riddle was as to why in most tumors, the cells metastasize to certain specific organ-sites. But why at specific sites only a cancer deposits its cells. In 1889, Stephan Paget's had proposed a hypothesis (seed and soil theory) revolving around soil (specific organ) and seed (cancer cell) theory. Today this has been given a different perspective: “it is due to micro-environment” of that organ or tissue where the cancer cells deposits and thrive. However which factors precisely govern this mechanism, needs further investigations.
As if this all was not enough trouble to bother the scientific investigators, some bright mind showed that this activity and process is not only at local level but, there is a high command (very much like in political parties), which finally sends its dictat transmitted through its messengers, that is genetic material here in the form of DNAs, RNAs and miRNA which controls signals.
Moreover, these malignant cells, like terrorist in our society, not only followed pre-determined sets of rules in shape of modules; but also moved singly and independently like lone wolf; hid amidst normal people (cells and tissues here), dare to survive in adversaries, kept increasing its capacity and capability, then strike at best amplitude when nobody was suspecting.
This migration of single and independent tumor malignant cell takes place in the very early course of the malignant tumor's life cycle.
Now, where do we stand today with all this early speculations and insights gained We now know for sure that we could not treat or completely eradicate some malignant tumors because sometimes our troops of medicines could not kill all the tumor cells, rather some cells quietly escape, in the very early stage of a malignant tumors development, hid and wait for circumstances to become right to re-emerge.
Thus the tumor metastasis has come to be understood as a very complex process, controlled by genetic domain in the body through micro-RNAs which either up-regulate or down-regulate the suppresser or proto-onco gene.
There are genes and local micro-environmental factors which help via “Epithelial myo- epithelial transmission”, (EMT) and/or its reverse process, “myo-epithelial transmission (MET).
These tumor cells have surface receptors as markers which help in these on-going processes.
There are substances, molecules and signals which loosen the tight web network between cells to allow these malignant cells to move. There are still other substances which disrupt the intact basement membranes which act like a wall preventing cells to move away.
Paradoxically at times our own chemotherapeutic management helps create favorable environment for tumor cells to grow after developing resistance.
Therefore to understand tumor metastatic process more and more investigations are needed through biochemical and molecular biology studies, associated with genetic processes including micro- RNA based control and epigenetic influences governing metabolic pathways regulated by miRNAs.


Table of Content

Era's Journal of Medical Research: Volume-4 Number-1

PICTURE GALLERY

News
  • Due to some unavoidable circumstances the PhD. entrance examination has been postponed from 29.07.2017 to 05.08.2017.... Read more...
  • M.B.B.S student Mr. Paarth Garg awarded Cancer Research Training Exchange Fellowship for Italy." Read more...
  • Admission Notice on Vacant Seats 2017... Read more...
  • Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital ranked 2nd among top Medical Colleges of India - An INDIA TODAY (Nielsen Survey 2017)... Read more...
  • International Institute of organized Research I2OR Awards 2017.... Read more...
  • Laboratory for Stem Cell & Restorative Neurology, ELMC&H collaborated with the University of Queensland, Australia... Read more...
  • P.G. Course Fee Details.... Read more...
  • List of successful undergraduate students for ICMR-STS' 2017 Fellowship.... Read more...
  • Best Poster Award Phoenix 2017, International Medical Student Conference Mangalore.... Read more...
  • All India physiology quiz competition award.... Read more...
  • 2nd Revised Basic Course Workshop in Medical Education & Technology.... Read more...
  • MoU signed between Era’s Lucknow Medical College & Hospital and Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali.... Read more...
  • ELMC&H student Mr. Parth Garg reaching International Boundaries.... Read more...
  • Foundation program for MBBS students batch-2016 was organised on 15&17 October 2016.... Read more...
  • Dr. Ritika Srivastava got 2nd prize at COSDERMINDIA - 2016 at Mumbai.... Read more...
  • Mr. Parth Garg got first prize at BIMSSCON 2016 at Dhaka, Bangladesh for his work on "Fate of MSCs in OGD induced hypoxia.... Read more...
  • Revised Basic Course Workshop for faculty development was organised during 28-30 September 2016.... Read more...