• ICV 2015:77.31
  • ICV 2016:92.32
  • IF of EJMR :4.34(SJIF-2016)
  • IF of EJMR :5.035(SJIF-2017)

     The concept of cancer stem cells has come into prominence for the last 2-3 decades. This term evolved out of the well established entities of stem cells in human body. The stem cells as such have been defined as the primitive or primordial cells from which all the cells of the body develop. During the course of early development these cells divide and develop to definitive organogenesis; and impart functional characteristics to cells of each organ. These cells now named as somatic cells, also harbour one basic type of stem cells-i.e somatic stem cells. The embryonic stem cells could be found from embryo or umbilical cord. Thus the stem cells we knew till about three decades before were either embryonic stem cells or somatic stem cells. Each normal organ, besides the bulk of normal cells, contained a few basis STEM CELLS which were responsible for repair and maintenance; by limited proliferation. We have held our concept of cancer development in any organ or anywhere in the body; resultant to assault on any or some of these normal cells-through chemicals/viruses or radiations etc. and thereby causing genetic mutation. These mutations and other epigenetic changes over the period of time produce cancer. Once the cancer develops through this process, the bulk of tumor mass comprise heterogeneous population of cells.

     The tumor cells keep proliferating and metastasize. This is scholastic theory of development of cancer. Now, within this mass of tumor cells, some cells are mainly responsible for further division/proliferation of tumor cells and metastasis from the local site to distant places. These cells have been named as Cancer Stem Cells. According to the other theory of cancer development, now, it is believed that cancer develops only from the cancer stem cells. These cells proliferate to produce the bulk of tumor and these are the cells which are responsible for chemo-resistance and tumor metastasis. These Cancer Stem Cells also have some cell surface markers similar to those of the normal stem cells, while still the markers- be surface or functional, may be specific to cancer stem cells; depending upon the type of cancer. However, the markers which exclusively differ between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells are still under intense investigative research. When a cancer is being treated by chemotherapy, initially the tumor responds well and looks as the cancer has been cured. However soon after some time, the malignant tumor recurs. It therefore became clear that either the tumor originated all over again or some of the tumor cells were not killed and remained dormant. This later fear was found to be true: “some of the cells had survived despite chemotherapy”. These resistant cells gave rise to recurrence; and were labeled as “cancer stem cells”. The property of chemo-resistance, recurrence; and metastasis-were all collectively grouped under stemness. This stemness is what differentiated cancer stem cells from other body cells; but to some extent resembling to normal stem cells. As such, these stemness properties are governed by several metabolic pathways like JAK-STAT, WNT, NANOG, and NOTCH etc. which have gone dysregulated. Now, the two separate hypothesis of cancer development have implications regarding management. The colonel development emphasizes elimination of all cancer cells for full treatment.

     The CSCs modal requires that all cancer cells as well as CSCs should be killed to stop recurrence and metastasis. Besides, the different pathways governing cancer stem cell development, evolution, proliferation, resistance and metastasis requires intervening these JAK- STAT, NANOG, NOTCH, WNT, SOX-2 pathways for full treatment. The concept of EMT or epithelial- myo-epithelial transmission and the reverse myo-epithelial- epithelial transmission has revealed how this process and associated changes in cancer cell behavior precipitate metastasis. This again is mediated upon by above mentioned signaling pathways. Coming to this for, the problem has remained to definitely differentiate between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells.

     The differentiating stem cells markers are mostly proteins; except some newer ones which are due to glycosylation, of like glycans. These are carbohydrate in nature. One of the commonest marker- Thomsen – Friedenreich antigen (TF); CD176 has been revealed on carrier proteins, already known as tumor markers for cancer stem cells. These cancer specific glycans on cancer stem cell differentiate them for normal stem cells. These researches paved way for designing molecules which could attack on cancer stem cells via specialized therapy. Here also, the researchers are now focusing on common daily use substances for targeting the cancer stem cell therapeutically. Some common substances till date use for targeting cancer stem cells are Iron therapy which via fenton chemistry through salinomycins mechanism regulates it. The iron molecule used has been ironomycin which replaces one of the salinomycins hydroxyl groups and kills the cell through Ferroptosis. Another molecule discovered to regulate stem cell function is “Vit-C,” deficiency of which in some person's cause pathways leading to development of leukemia and the excess prevents or treats it in mice. The aim to discover further natural substances to regulate cancer stem cell functions is still under-way.


Table of Content

Era's Journal of Medical Research: Volume-4 Number-1

PICTURE GALLERY

News
  • Due to some unavoidable circumstances the PhD. entrance examination has been postponed from 29.07.2017 to 05.08.2017.... Read more...
  • M.B.B.S student Mr. Paarth Garg awarded Cancer Research Training Exchange Fellowship for Italy." Read more...
  • Admission Notice on Vacant Seats 2017... Read more...
  • Era's Lucknow Medical College & Hospital ranked 2nd among top Medical Colleges of India - An INDIA TODAY (Nielsen Survey 2017)... Read more...
  • International Institute of organized Research I2OR Awards 2017.... Read more...
  • Laboratory for Stem Cell & Restorative Neurology, ELMC&H collaborated with the University of Queensland, Australia... Read more...
  • P.G. Course Fee Details.... Read more...
  • List of successful undergraduate students for ICMR-STS' 2017 Fellowship.... Read more...
  • Best Poster Award Phoenix 2017, International Medical Student Conference Mangalore.... Read more...
  • All India physiology quiz competition award.... Read more...
  • 2nd Revised Basic Course Workshop in Medical Education & Technology.... Read more...
  • MoU signed between Era’s Lucknow Medical College & Hospital and Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali.... Read more...
  • ELMC&H student Mr. Parth Garg reaching International Boundaries.... Read more...
  • Foundation program for MBBS students batch-2016 was organised on 15&17 October 2016.... Read more...
  • Dr. Ritika Srivastava got 2nd prize at COSDERMINDIA - 2016 at Mumbai.... Read more...
  • Mr. Parth Garg got first prize at BIMSSCON 2016 at Dhaka, Bangladesh for his work on "Fate of MSCs in OGD induced hypoxia.... Read more...
  • Revised Basic Course Workshop for faculty development was organised during 28-30 September 2016.... Read more...