ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

Review Article

DOI:10.24041/ejmr2017.50

CANCER STEM CELL IN GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

Bachchu Lal

Department of Neurosurgery

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types, have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSCs markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBMs cancer biology.

Received on : 01-11-2017

Accepted on : 10-12-2017

Address for correspondence

Dr. Bachchu Lal

Department of Neurosurgery

The Johns Hopkins University

School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA

Email: lal@kennedykrieger.org

Contact no: 001- 4435402221

KEYWORD: Glioblastoma multiforme, Cancer stem cells (CSCs), CSCs markers, Cancer biology.

INTRODUCTION

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant and frequently occurring type of primary astrocytomas. It accounts for more than 60% of all brain tumors in adults. According to presumed cell origin, glioma is defined as a primary brain tumor. Its global incidence is 10 per 100,000 people (1-2). Its ratio is higher in men in comparison to women (2-3). It comprises astrocytic tumors (astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma), oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas and mixed gliomas (4-7). These are the main tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), that account for about 80% of all malignant primary tumors of the brain (6-8). A grade 4 astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme is a most severe form of glioma. Following treatment, it shows only median survival of 25 months. It is responsible for 60% of the brain tumors in adults (9-12). Despite several advances in research of cancer and modern therapies against GBM, it is a deadly disease, it has shown only 2% improvement in 5 year survival (13) This tumor has also shown resistance towards radiotherapy and chemotherapy (14-16). The histological features of GBM are presence of central necrosis and microvascular hyperplasia,which distinguishes it from lower grade glial tumors. Other poor prognostic characteristics of GBM are palisading cells around the area of necrosis (17-18). Some other histological features of GBM are atypical nuclei and cellular pleomorphism, increased mitosis, hypercellularity, development of lumina reminiscent of kidney glomeruli (19). The most frequent occurrence site of GBM is cerebral hemispheres, 95% of these tumors

arise in supratentorial region, whereas some percentage of tumor present in brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord (20).

Radiotherapy

 

Time

 

 

Chemotherapy

 

 

 

 

e.g. temozolomide

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tumor is recapitulated

 

Residual

 

 

 

glioma

 

Heterogeneous

 

from residual glioma

 

 

 

 

stem cell

 

tumor

 

stem cell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1 : Cancer stem cell theory representation in glioma tumors, illustrating the impact of clinical treatments on enriching stem cell populations of glioma. (Tracy seymour et al.)

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells that have the same characteristics as normal stem cells, mainly the capability to give rise to all types of cells present in a particular cancer sample. Cancer stem cells behave as tumor initiating cells or tumor propagating cells. They possesses the ability of self renewal and differentiation into various kinds of cells (24). These cells show similarity with the property of stem cells like infinite cell growth, multipotency, asymmetric cell division (25). Cancer stem cells have been reported in several types of tumors like prostate cancer, colon cancer, hepatocellular cancer, brain tumors, osteosarcomas, lung cancer, and melanoma

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 146

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

(26). The stem cells properties in human cortical glial tumors were discovered in 2002 and these isolated precursor cells are competent to make neurospheres in vitro (25). Glioblastoma is the most common of all lethal brain tumors. The recent standard therapies consist of tumor resection, adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy (21,26). GBMs involve in the expression of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) that comprise of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes within the mass of tumor (27). In malignant glioma, cancer stem cells were defined as glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and they have the

p o t e n t i a l t o d i ff e r e n t a t e i n t o n e u r o n s , oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. The main characteristics of glioblastoma cancer stem cells contain self renewal (27), angiogenesis, invasion, proliferation, pluripotency, neurosphere formation,

(26)modulation of immune response (27), multilineage differentiation and high motility (28-

29)GSCs associated molecular markers express differentially in these GSCs. These markers are classified according to the site of cellular localization like cytoskeletal proteins like nestin , transcriptional factors like Sox2, Nanog, Oct-3/4, cell surface markers such as LICAM (30-31), CD133, CD15, A2B5, polycomb transcriptional suppressors like Bmi 1 and Ezh2 (32). Cell surface proteins isolation were generally used to define cancer stem cells. The detection of these cancer stem cell surface markers is an important key in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. The aim of this review is to define the significance of cancer stem cell markers in Glioblastoma multiforme.

Radiation chemotherapy

Glioblasto

Targeting

oncoprotein

ma

 

 

Recurrence

Glioma stem

Brai

ncell

Mutati

 

Mutati

 

on

 

 

 

on

stem

Hippocampus

 

cell

and

 

Neuron

subventricular

 

 

Glia

zone

 

 

 

Cancer stem cells

Recently, cancer stem cells become a major focus area in cancer research. Clarke et al. (33) reported about CSCs, a cancer cell have the ability of self renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages that play the major role in the heterogeneity and the tumor complexity (34) The clonal evolution model reveals about the randomly occurring self renewal property of the cells, whereas the CSCs hypothesis suggests a hierachial arrangement in which stem like cells are favoured (35). CSCs are characterized to be resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and it possess the capability to remain in quiescent stage (36), hence its persistence results in the redevelopment of tumors. This proves that CSCs may be the cause of poor prognosis, treatment failure and disease relapse connected with many solid tumors. An intense discussion about the origin of CSCs revealed that CSCs originate from cancer cells that have been hierarchially downstream to provide undifferentiated CSCs. Likewise, cancer occur due to mutations, hence CSCs also arises from normal stem or progenitor cells. In many tissues and organs, an extensive evidence have given about the connection between cancer and normal stem cells (37). Researchers have separated stem cells from the normal brain and formed neurospheres in culture using serum free media supplemented with cytokines (38). All neurosphere is derived from a single stem cell representing their self renewal potential. Studies have also been done to isolate CSCs from grade IV gliomas. There are a lot of examples, which have reported about stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. One study proved that leukemia arises from leukemic stem like cells (LSCs) (40). The isolation and characterization of CSCs from solid brain tumors, 10 breast cancer,37 ovarian cancer,38 leukemia (40) have provide a unique information about the tumor initiation and maintenance abilities of CSCs gliomas (41). GBM and GSM cells have been grown on non-adherent surfaces to form tumorspheres (39). Each sphere is thought to originate from a single CSC, similar to the normal neurospheres originating from a single neural stem cell (39). There are a number of examples illustrating the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. Evidence has indicated that leukemia originates from leukemic stem-like cells (LSCs) (40). Furthermore, Al-Hajj et al. (42) demonstrated that a small minority of cells within breast cancer express CD44 and CD24 surface markers, which distinguish and isolate tumor- initiating cells from non-tumorigenic cells (42).

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 147

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

CSCs have also been found in human ovarian cancers (43). The identification and isolation of CSCs from solid human brain tumors (38), leukemia (40), ovarian cancer (43), and breast cancer (42) have been achieved and provide a unique opportunity for exploring the tumor-initiating and -maintaining abilities of CSCs

Biomarkers in GBCSCs

Ignatova et al. reported first time about GBCSCs and its presence has been identified in several studies.The list of these proposed markers are CD133, cMyc, CD44, LICAM, KLF4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, SALL4, Olig2, Bmi 1 (44-48).

SALL4

SALL4 is a spalt like C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor,that is found on ESCs in a same manner such as SOX2 and OCT-4 (49-50). SALL4 is a key role player in the progression of the ICM to maintain ESC pluripotency and ensure its zygotic survival (49, 51- 52). SALL4 and NANOG interaction has also been confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments and it has been reported that they work together in a similar manner as two ESC markers Oct-4 and SOX2 in regulation of transcription (53). SALL4 act as a main role player in several types of cancers and has been previously demonstrated as CSC marker. It has also been reported that SALL4 is overexpressed in gliomas in comparison to normal brain tissue and its higher levels correlated with poor prognosis (54). Moreover, suppression of SALL4 reduces cell proliferation in gliomas and stimulates apoptosis (55). Di Tomaso et al. (56) demonstrated that CSCs in GBM express SALL4 along with NANOG. Whereas, the utilization of SALL4 marker for CSCs in GBM is restricted to a small number of reports (54- 57)

OCT-4

OCT-4 is a transcription factor play a main role with NANOG in the propagation of ESCs and they perform their work in a synergistic behavior with SOX2 to attain this regulation (58). Oct-4 is important for pluripotency and mammalian embryonic development (59). It has also been linked with cancer, which involve in the self renewal of CSCs (60, 61). Normal brain tissues do not express oct-4 whereas glioma cells express Oct-4 and it is concerned with the pathogenesis of GBM (62, 63). Indeed, GBM cells express intense staining of OCT- 4 and SOX2.Moreover, majority of cells express along with SOX2 and NANOG (61).Therefore, Oct- 4, NANOG and SOX2 play an important role in the regulation of CSCs.

A.

 

B.

 

Multilineage

 

 

 

 

glioma stem

Abonormal

 

cell

 

expression

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOX2

OCT4

NANO

 

 

 

 

 

Cancerous

mutation

Activation of stem cell

Deactivation of

differentiation

Figure II: Schtematic representation of the glioma stem cells development. A. Altered over expression of pluripotent transcription factors, NANOG, OCT- 4 and SOX2 involve in the promotion of multilineage potential in glioma stem cells and activates stem cell networks whereas deactivating differentiation pathways. B. Multilineage neural stem cells express SOX2, NANOG and OCT-4.

SOX2

SOX2 is a member of transcriptional co-factors, which is known to be involve in many developmental processes and is over-expressed in tumors (64-65) SOX2 is a critical factor for maintenance of stem cells and it is proposed as a neural progenitor cell marker. It play a major role in many cancers such as breast (66), rectal (67) and lung cancers (68). SOX2 shows higher expression in GBM in comparison to normal brain tissue (69). In addition to this, GBM express higher SOX2 expression than lower grade tumors (70)

pSTAT3

Cytokines activates signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins and it involves in the regulation of several cytokines and growth factor responses (71) STAT3 plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, pluripotency, cell survival and ESC self renewal processes (72-74) Inhibition of STAT3 expression reduce self-renewal but promote cellular differentiation, that results in embryo lethality in mice (75). Abnormal STAT3 signalling pathways has known to be connected with promoting angiogenesis and cellular proliferation, weakening of immune system, inflammation in cancer (73-76) There is a plenty of studies that proves the role of STAT3 in cancer like GBM, prostate (77) thyroid, skin(melanoma), breast (73) and head and neck cancer (78) GBM express high levels of STAT3 than normal brain tissues and cells such as astrocytes and

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 148

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

suppression of this molecule results in apoptosis and inhibition of tumor proliferation. Many studies on STAT3 in GBM have reported the decreased expression of STAT3 leads to inhibition of tumor growth. It suggested that STAT3 is a potential target for cancer treatment (79-83).

NANOG

NANOG is an ESC transcription factor and its expression pattern has been known to be link with several types of cancer comprising of lung (84), breast (85-86) oral cavity (87) and prostate (88) It has also been seen to be involved in the regulation of GBM. Stem cell has shown higher expression of NANOG in cerebellum and medulloblastoma (89-91) NANOG alters the GBM stem cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tumorigenecity (92) NANOG suppression in GBM inhibits tumor proliferation and invasion (93) It is assumed that NANOG along with SOX2 and OCT-4 is accountable for ESCs ability to maintain their self- renewal and pluripotency (94-95). Recent data revealed about the role for NANOG in the regulation of GBCSCs.

c- Myc

c-Myc belongs to a member of the family of Myc genes, eventhough c-Myc, I-Myc and N-Myc have been involved in tumor growth, hence they are considered as nuclear oncogenes (96-97). Over- expression of c-myc has been associated to cellular proliferation (98-99). c-Myc is known to induce cellular dedifferentiation (100) which ensure to form iPSCs. cMyc has been found to be involve in the pathogenesis of prostate (101) breast (102-103) pancreatic (104) lung cancers (105) medulloblastoma

(106)and GBM (107). Despite their role in generating iPSCs, there is an evidence indicating that c-Myc may be a marker for progenitor cells rather than ESCs

(108).Recent studies have demonstrated that c-Myc increases the capacity of tumor formation in nestin expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma. This study suggested that c-Myc is found on progenitor cells, whereas its role as neural progenitor cell marker is not elucidated. In-spite of this, c-Myc is known to be associated with GBM, CSC maintenance and self renewal and its higher expression has been associated with poor prognosis of GBM (107,109-111).

Kruppel-Like Factor 4

Kruppel- like factor-4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor that involved in the cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis (112). It is a member of the KLF family. It is characterized by the presence of Cys2/ His 2 zinc fingers (113-114). KLF4 is important for the self renewal of ESCs and maintenance of pluripotency

(115-116). It is one of the factors along with Oct-4 and Sox2 that re-program fibroblast to form iPSCs (117) . Hence, it is not surprising that higher expression of KLF4 is linked with cancer (118-119). The first identified oncogene in 1999 was KLF4 (120) and after that its higher expression has been reported to induce cellular dysplasia and squamous cell carcinomas (121) Recent studies suggested that KLF4 is over-expressed in 70% of specimens of breast cancer (119) Whereas, there is ample evidence, showing that KLF4 inhibits formation of tumor and metastasis in different types of cancer (122-126). It is estimated that KLF4 inhibits p53, suppressing cell senescence and apoptosis and it also activate p21 induced cell cycle arrest (127-129).

There is a limited information on KLF4 expression in GBM.A study of gene expression analysis study reports about the over-expression of KLF4 in brain tumors rather than GBM (58) A recent studies on GBM cells revealed, microRNA targeting of KLF4 ,that suppress tumor growth in these cells, however the role of KLF4 in GBM is not well understood.

Neural Progenitor CSC Markers

Nestin

The nestin gene (Rat.401) is a neuroepithelial stem cell gene. It encodes a novel intermediate filament protein

(130)Nestin is expressed in various types of cancers including GBM (131-139). Over-expression of nestin has been linked with higher grade gliomas with lower patient survival rate (140) In addition to this, down- regulation of nestin occurs due to inducing differentiation of GBM cells.198 It binds to a large number of cells in the embryonic brain of mammals and during the growth of the central nervous system, its presence is correlated with the cellular proliferation (141-142) These studies have suggested that nestin expressing cells can differentiate into multiple cell types, it proposed nestin as an useful stem cell marker

(143).Whereas, there is an ample evidence that nestin is a neural progenitor cell marker, which is present on neuron precursor cells (142-144), and it get decreased when precursor cells differentiate into neuronal and glial cells (144).

Glial FibrillaryAcidic Protein

Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a marker of astrocytic maturation, generally used as histological marker of tumors of glial origin that involved in normal astrocytic functions (145-146) Postnatal and adult brain NSCs express GFAP, while embryonic brain NSCs do not express GFAP representing that GFAP is a marker of mature glial cells. Therefore, it have been suggested that GFAP is a progenitor rather than ESC marker. GFAP along with nestin has been found to be

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 149

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

co-expressed in GBM cells (147) and is known to be over-expressed in the serum and peripheral blood of patients of GBM in comparison to healthy subjects (148-149). However, both these studies have elucidated about the GFAP positivity in different proportion of GBM patients. Serum study on GBM cases have reported over-expression of GFAP in 80% cases (149) while peripheral studies on GBM have revealed over-expression of GFAP in only 20.6% cases. GFAP staining is known as a standard diagnostic marker of GBM for samples within the CNS (149-152).

CD133

CD133 (PROMININ-1) is a protein, found on the plasma membrane and HSCs (153) It is one of the cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens (154) In 2003, CD133 was found on NSCs (155) Singh et al.20 have reported that stem like cells deficient in neural differentiation markers along with expression of CD133+ in pediatric brain tumors and also represented that in the brain of immunodeficient mice, CD133+human GBM cells are able to initiate tumor formation.21. Additionally CD133 expression have been implicated in many types of cancers like colorectal and prostate cancer and a greater proportion of CD133+ have been correlated in a tumor with poor survival (156-158) Due to increased progenitor cell activation, GBM tumors recurrence after radiotherapy and chemotherapy showed amplified percentage of cells with CD133+ in comparison to original tumors (159). Additionally,CD133+ gene transcription signal can differentiate GBM from low grade tumors and its expression has been confirmed to the severity of the tumors (159). These studies have suggested that CD133 play an important role in tumor invasion and recurrence, whereas all stem cell not express CD133.

CD44

Cd44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein. It acts as a receptor for glycosaminoglycans hyaluronan (HA) (160-161). It is found in many tissues and is present on embryonic epithelia during development (162). The processes such as splicing and post-translational modifications evolved multiple forms of CD44.The most common isoform is CD44s and other variant is CD44v (163). Different types of variations on the CD44 receptor may contribute to its involvements in different pathways such as angiogenesis, cellular adhesion, cytokine release and lymphocyte activation (162). Moreover,CD44 has been seemed to be involve in head and neck cancer (164-165), 1non small cell lung cancer, breast (166-168) prostate (169-171) and colorectal cancers (172-173) . A study of xenografted

mice has reported that CD44+ cells are able to generate new tumors as like the original tumor, whereas, CD44 cells are not able to achieve this.65A study on GBM cell lines and tumors has elucidated the expression of CD44 in 100% of these cases (174).This was supported by the immunohistochemical staining of CD44 and its another variants in the comprehensive study on GBM

(175)Additionally, suppression of CD44 inhibits progression of GBM, characterizing its role in tumor promotion, whereas, many GBM cell lines have shown varying expression of CD44 (176). A broad study on mouse cerebellum has shown the cell surface marker CD44 co-expression along with other marker such as brain lipid binding protein,nestin,SOX2 and astrocyte specific glutamate transporter, these all are related to neural stem/ progenitor cells (177) CD44 is also found to be co-expressed with progenitor marker Oligodendrocytes,Olig2.This evidence would suggest that CD44 is a progenitor cell marker because it is present on differentiated cells. CD44 is also co- expressed with the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker Olig2. This evidence would infer that CD44 is a progenitor cell marker, as it is present on partially differentiated cells.

CONCLUSION

GBM (Grade IV gliomas) is the severe forms of cancer. It is difficult to treat and remain incurable. There is no major recent therapeutic advances have been noticed for treatment for Grade IV gliomas, but there is the main exciting advances providing minor improvement in the survival rate. Recent research has elucidated about the CSC theory of cancer progression, presenting that grade IV gliomas contain GSCs. These GSCs possess the ability of invasion, resistance, therapeutic and tumor recapitulation post-treatment. Therefore, targeting GSCs may help improve poor prognosis and offer the possibility of a cure. In this review, we target many markers published in recent studies and proposed CSCs as a major focus area in the context of GBM. Current studies have focused on a large set of markers that help in the characterization and isolation of tumors in order to prove these markers as therapeutic target .In the light of these observation, we have discussed about the role of a variety of markers such as OCT-4,SOX-2, NANOG, CD44, CD133, GFAP, SALL4, nestin and KLF4.The further investigation is required to prove these markers in GSCs useful for early diagnosis in GBM. Hence, introduction of specific therapies against CSCs help to improve the survival rate and quality of life of patients of cancer with the main emphasis on metastatic stage (23).

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 150

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

REFERENCES

1.Iacob G, Dinca EB (2009). Current data and strategy in glioblastoma multiforme. J Med Life, 2, 386.

2.Thakkar JP, Dolecek TA, Horbinski C, et al (2014). Epidemiologic and molecular prognostic review of Glioblastoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 23, 1985-96.

3.Ohgaki H, Kleihues P (2005). Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol, 109, 93- 108.

4.Holland EC (2000) Glioblastoma multiforme: the terminator. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 97, 6242-44.

5.Maher EA, Furnari FB, Bachoo RM, et al (2001). Malignant glioma: genetics and biology of a grave matter. Genes Devt, 15, 1311-33.

6.Schwartzbaum JA, Fisher JL, Aldape KD, Wrensch M (2006). Epidemiology and molecular pathology of glioma. Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 2, 494-503.

7.Agnihotri S, Burrell KE, Wolf A, et al (2013). Glioblastoma, a brief review of history, molecular genetics, animal models and novel therapeutic strategies. AITE, 61, 25-41.

8.Messali A, Villacorta R, Hay JW (2014). A Review of the economic burden of Glioblastoma and the cost effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments. Pharmacoeconomics, 32, 1201-12.

9.Rock K, McArdle O, Forde P, et al (2014). A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme the validation in a non- trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical

10.Schmitz M, Temme A, Senner V, Ebner R, Schwind S, Stevanovic S, et al. (2007). Identification of SOX2 as a novel glioma- associated antigen and potential target for T cell- b a s e d i m m u n o t h e r a p y. B r J C a n c e r, 96(8):1293–301. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603802

11.Holland EC. (2000) .Glioblastoma multiforme: the terminator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(12):6242–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.12.6242

12.Lonser RR, Walbridge S, Vortmeyer AO, Pack SD, Nguyen TT, Gogate N, et al.(2002). Induction of glioblastoma multiforme in nonhuman primates after therapeutic doses of fractionated whole-brain radiation therapy. J Neurosurg, 97(6):1378–89. doi:10.3171/jns.2002.97.6.1378

13.Surawicz TS, Davis F, Freels S, Laws ER, Menck HR. (1998). Brain tumor survival:

results from the National Cancer Data Base. J N e u r o o n c o l , 4 0 ( 2 ) : 1 5 1 – 6 0 . doi:10.1023/A:1006091608586

14.Frosina G. (2009). DNA repair and resistance of gliomas to chemotherapy and radiother-apy. Mol Cancer Res, 7(7):989–99. doi:10.1158/1541- 7786.MCR-09-0030

15.Chakravarti A, Loeffler JS, Dyson NJ. (2002).Insulin-like growth factor receptor I mediates resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in primary human glioblastoma cells through continued activation of phospho-inositide 3-kinase signaling. Cancer Res, 62(1):200–7.

16. S e y m o u r T, N o w a k A , K a k u l a s F. (2015).Targeting aggressive cancer stem cells in g l i o b l a s t o m a . F r o n t O n c o l , 5 : 1 5 9 . doi:10.3389/fonc.2015.00159

17.Outlines P. (2013).CNS Tumor Astrocytic Tumors Glioblastoma Multiforme. Available from: http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/ cnstumorglioblastoma.html

18.Rong Y, Durden DL, Van Meir EG, Brat DJ.

( 2 0 0 6 ) . ' P s e u d o p a l i s a d i n g ' n e c r o s i s i n glioblastoma: a familiar morphologic feature that links vascular pathology, hypoxia, and a n g i o g e n e s i s . J N e u r o p a t h o l E x p Neurol,65(6):529–39. doi:10.1097/00005072- 200606000-00001

19.Liu Q, Liu Y, Li W, Wang X, Sawaya R, Lang FF, et al. (2015) Genetic, epigenetic, and molecular landscapes of multifocal and multicentric glioblastoma. Acta Neuropathol ,130(4):587–97. doi:10.1007/s00401-015-1470-8

20.Nakada M, Kita D, Watanabe T, et al (2011). Aberrant signaling pathways in glioma. Cancers, 3, 3242-78.

21.Heddleston JM, Li Z, McLendon RE, Hjelmeland

A B , R i c h J N . ( 2 0 0 9 ) . T h e h y p o x i c microenvironment maintains glioblastoma stem cells and promotes reprogramming towards a c a n c e r s t e m c e l l p h e n o t y p e . C e l l Cycle,8(20):3274–84.

22.Cho D, Lin S, Yang W, et al. (2013). Targeting cancer stem cells for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Cell Transplant.;22:731–9.

23.Supriya Mehrotra, A.N.Srivastava et al. (2015). Cancer stem cells in breast cancer : A review.Era's Journal of Medical Research,

24.Kanno H, Miyake S, Nakanowatari S. (2015).

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 151

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

Signaling pathways in glioblastoma cancer stem cells: a role of Stat3 as a potential therapeutic target. Austin J Cancer Clin Res. 2(2):1030.

25.Stopschinski BE, Beier CP, Beier D. (2013). Glioblastoma cancer stem cells-From concept to clinical application. Cancer Lett, 338:32–40.

26.Cruceru ML, Neagu M, Demoulin JB, Constantinescu SN. (2013) Therapy targets in glioblastoma and cancer stem cells: lessons from hematopoietic neoplasm. J Cell Mol Med. 17(10):1218–35.

27.Huang Z, Cheng L, Guryanova OA, Wu Q, Bao S. (2010) Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma- molecular signaling and therapeutic targeting. Protein Cell.1(7):638–55.

28.Gilbert CA, Ross AH. (2009). Glioma stem cells: cell culture, markers and targets for new combination therapies. J Cell Biochem, 108(5):1031–8.

29.Schiffer D, Mellai M, Annovazzi L, et al. (2014) Stem cell niches in glioblastoma: a neuropathological view. Biomed Res Int, 2014:725921.

30.S. Bao, Q. Wu, Z. Li et al.(2008).“Targeting cancer stem cells through L1CAM suppresses glioma growth,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 15, pp. 6043–6048.

31.Brown DV, Daniel PM, D'Abaco GM, Gogos A, Ng W, Morokoff AP, et al. (2015) Coexpression analysis of CD133 and CD44 identifies Proneural and Mesenchymal subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme. Oncotarget, 6: 6267–6280. pmid :25749043

32.Dahlrot RH, Hermansen SK, Hansen S, Kristensen BW. (2013) What is the clinical value of cancer stem cell markers in gliomas? Int J Clin Pathol, 6(3):334–48.

33.Clarke MF, Dick JE, Dirks PB, Eaves CJ, Jamieson CH, Jones DL. (2006).Cancer stem cells –

perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR workshop on cancer stem c e l l s . C a n c e r R e s , 6 6 : 9 3 3 9 – 4 4 . doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3126

34. Campbell LL, Polyak K. (2007) Breast tumor heterogeneity: cancer stem cells or clonal e v o l u t i o n ? C e l l C y c l e , 6 : 2 3 3 2 – 8 . doi:10.4161/cc.6.19.4914

35.Chen R, Nishimura MC, Bumbaca SM, Kharbanda S, Forrest WF, Kasman IM. (2010).A hierarchy of self-renewing tumor-initiating cell types in

glioblastoma. Cancer Cell 17:362–75. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.12.049

36.Li L, Bhatia R. (2011).Stem cell quiescence. Clin Cancer Res,37:4936–41. doi:10.1158/1078- 0432.CCR-10-1499

37.Reya T, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF, Weissman IL. (2001). Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells. Nature 414:105–11. doi:10.1038/35102167

38.Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J. (2003). Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors. Cancer Res, 63:5821–8.

39.Azari H, Millette S, Ansari S, Rahman M, Deleyrolle LP, Reynolds BA. (2011).Isolation and expansion of human glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells using the neurosphere assay. J Vis Exp, 56:e3633. doi:10.3791/3633

40.Passegue E, Jamieson CH, Ailles LE, Weissman IL. (2003)Normal and leukemic hematopoiesis: are leukemias a stem cell disorder or a reacquisition of stem cell characteristics? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,100 (Suppl1):11842–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.2034201100

41.Yuan X, Curtin J, Xiong Y, Liu G, Waschsmann- Hogiu S, Farkas DL.(2004) Isolation of cancer stem cells from adult glioblastoma multiforme. Oncogen, 23:9392–400. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208311

42.Al-Hajj M, Wicha MS, Benito-Hernandez A, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF. (2003) Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100:3983–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0530291100

43.Ma L, Lai D, Liu T, Cheng W, Guo L. (2010). Cancer stem-like cells can be isolated with drug selection in human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai), 42:593–602. doi:10.1093/abbs/gmq067

44.Elsir T, Edqvist PH, Carlson J, Ribom D, Bergqvist M, Ekman S. (2014). A study of embryonic stem cell-related proteins in human astrocytomas: identification of Nanog as a predictor of survival. Int J Cancer, 134: 1123-1131.

45.W, Wei W, Zhu S, Zhu J, Shi Y, Lin T, et al. (2009). Generation of rat and human induced pluripotent stem cells by combining genetic reprogramming and chemical inhibitors. Cell Stem Cell ,4(1):16–9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.11.014

46.Olmez I, Shen W, McDonald H, Ozpolat B. (2015). Dedifferentiation of patient- derived glioblastoma multiforme cell lines results in a

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 152

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

cancer stem cell-like state with mitogen- independent growth. J Cell Mol Med, 19:1262–72. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12479

47.Zhang L, Yan Y, Jiang Y, Cui Y, Zou Y, Qian J, et al. (2015).The expression of SALL4 in patients

with gliomas: high level of SALL4 expression is c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p o o r o u t c o m e . J Neurooncol,121(2):261–8. doi:10.1007/ s11060- 014-1646-4

48.Rahaman SO, Harbor PC, Chernova O, Barnett GH, Vogelbaum MA, Haque SJ. (2002) Inhibition of constitutively active Stat3 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Oncogene ,21(55):8404–13. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206047

49.Zhang J, Tam W-L, Tong GQ, Wu Q, Chan H-Y, Soh B-S, et al. (2006) Sall4 modulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and early embryonic development by the transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1. Nat Cell Biol, 8(10):1114–23. doi:10.1038/ncb1481

50.Yang J, Chai L, Fowles TC, Alipio Z, Xu D, Fink LM, et al. (2008) Genome-wide analysis reveals Sall4 to be a major regulator of pluripotency in murine-embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(50):19756–61. doi:10.1073/ pnas.0809321105

51.Elling U, Klasen C, Eisenberger T, Anlag K, Treier M. (2006) Murine inner cell mass-derived lineages depend on Sall4 function. Proc Natl A c a d S c i U S A , 1 0 3 ( 4 4 ) : 1 6 3 1 9 – 2 4 . doi:10.1073/pnas.0607884103

52.Lim CY, Tam W-L, Zhang J, Ang HS, Jia H, Lipovich L, et al. (2008). Sall4 regulates distinct transcription circuitries in different blastocyst- derived stem cell lineages. Cell Stem Cell, 3(5):543–54. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.08.004

53.Wu Q, Chen X, Zhang J, Loh Y-H, Low T-Y, Zhang W, et al. (2006). Sall4 interacts with Nanog and co-occupies Nanog genomic sites in embryonic stem cells . J Biol Chem, 281(34):24090–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.C600122200

54.He, J., W. Zhang, Q. Zhou, T. Zhao, Y. Song, L. Chai, et al. (2013). Low-expression of microRNA-107 inhibits cell apoptosis in glioma by upregulation of SALL4. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 45:1962–1973.

55.He J, Zhang W, Zhou Q, Zhao T, Song Y, Chai L, et al. (2013). Low-expression of microRNA-107 inhibits cell apoptosis in glioma by upregulation of SALL4. Int J Biochem Cell Bio, 45(9):1962–73.

doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2013.06.008

56.Jha P, Patric IRP, Shukla S, Pathak P, Pal J, Sharma V, et al. (2014). Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies an essential role of reactive oxygen species in pediatric

glioblastoma multiforme and validates a methylome specific for H3 histone family 3A w i t h a b s e n c e o f G - C I M P / i s o c i t r a t e dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Neuro Oncol, 16(12):1607–17. doi:10.1093/neuonc/ nou113

57.Mei K, Liu A, Allan RW, Wang P, Lane Z, Abel TW, et al. (2009). Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases. Mod Pathol 22(12):1628–36. doi:10.1038/ modpathol.2009.148

58.Boyer LA, Lee TI, Cole MF, Johnstone SE, Levine SS, Zucker JP, et al. (2005)Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 122(6):947–56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.020.

59.Nichols J, Zevnik B, Anastassiadis K, Niwa H, Klewe-Nebenius D, Chambers I, et al. (1998). Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. Cell 95(3):379–91. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81769-9.

60.Guo Y, Liu S, Wang P, Zhao S, Wang F, Bing L, et al. (2011). Expression profile of embryonic stem cell-associated genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in human gliomas. Histopathology ,59(4):763–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.03993.x

61.Li W, Wei W, Zhu S, Zhu J, Shi Y, Lin T, et al. (2009). Generation of rat and human induced pluripotent stem cells by combining genetic reprogramming and chemical inhibitors. Cell Stem Cell, 4(1):16–9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.11.014

62.Talsma CE, Flack CG, Zhu T, He X, Soules M, Heth JA, et al. (2011). editors. Oct4 regulates GBM neurosphere growth and its expression is associated with poor survival in GBM patients. Neuro-Oncology. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press Inc. Journals Dept, p. 147–157.

63.Du Z, Jia D, Liu S, Wang F, Li G, Zhang Y, et al. (2009) Oct4 is expressed in human gliomas and promotes colony formation in glioma cells. Glia, 57(7):724–33. doi:10.1002/glia.20800

64.Wegner M. (1999). From head to toes: the multiple facets of Sox proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 27(6):1409–20. doi:10.1093/nar/27.6.1409

65.Dong C, Wilhelm D, Koopman P. (2004). Sox genes and cancer. Cytogenet Genome Res

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 153

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

,105(2–4):442–7. doi:10.1159/000078217

66.Chen Y, Shi L, Zhang L, Li R, Liang J, Yu W, et al. (2008).The molecular mechanism governing the oncogenic potential of SOX2 in breast cancer. J

B i o l C h e m , 2 8 3 ( 2 6 ) : 1 7 9 6 9 – 7 8 . doi:10.1074/jbc.M802917200

67.Saigusa S, Tanaka K, Toiyama Y, Yokoe T, Okugawa Y, Ioue Y, et al. (2009). Correlation of CD133, OCT4, and SOX2 in rectal cancer and their association with distant recurrence after chemoradiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol, 16(12):3488–98. doi:10.1245/s10434-009-0617- z

68.Rudin CM, Durinck S, Stawiski EW, Poirier JT, Modrusan Z, Shames DS, et al. (2012). Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies SOX2 as a frequently amplified gene in small- cell lung cancer. Nat Genet, 44(10):1111–6. doi:10.1038/ng.2405

69.Gangemi RM, Griffero F, Marubbi D, Perera M, Capra MC, Malatesta P, et al. (2009). SOX2 silencing in glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells causes stop of proliferation and loss of tumorigenicity. Stem Cells , 27:40–8. doi:10.1634/ stemcells.2008-0493

70.Schmitz M, Temme A, Senner V, Ebner R,

Schwind S, Stevanovic S. (2007) Identification

of SOX2 as a novel glioma-associated antigen and potential target for T cell-based i m m u n o t h e r a p y . B r J C a n c e r ,96:1293–301.10.1038/sj.bjc.6603802

71.Takeda K, Akira S. (2001). Multi-functional roles of Stat3 revealed by conditional gene targeting. Arch Immunol Ther Exp, 49(4):279–83.

72.Raz R, Lee C-K, Cannizzaro LA, d'Eustachio P, Levy DE. (1999).Essential role of STAT3 for

embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Proc Natl A c a d S c i U S A , 9 6 ( 6 ) : 2 8 4 6 – 5 1 . doi:10.1073/pnas.96.6.2846

73.Inghirami G, Chiarle R, Simmons WJ, Piva R, Schlessinger K, Levy DE. (2005).New and old functions of STAT3: a pivitol target for individualized treatment of cancer. Cell Cycle, 4(9):1131–3. doi:10.4161/cc.4.9.1985

74.Levy DE, Lee CK. (2002) What does Stat3 do? J

C l i n I n v e s t 1 0 9 ( 9 ) : 1 1 4 3 – 8 . doi:10.1172/JCI0215650

75.Takeda K, Noguchi K, Shi W, Tanaka T, Matsumoto M, Yoshida N, et al. (1997) Targeted disruption of the mouse Stat3 gene leads to early embryonic lethality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,

94(8):3801–4. doi:10.1073/ pnas.94.8.3801

76.Yu H, Pardoll D, Jove R. (2009) STATs in cancer inflammation and immunity: a leading role for STAT3. Nat Rev Cancer, 9(11)s:798–809. doi:10.1038/ nrc2734

77.Mora LB, Buettner R, Seigne J, Diaz J, Ahmad N, Garcia R, et al. (2002) Constitutive activation of STAT3 in human prostate tumors and cell lines direct inhibition of STAT3 signaling induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res, 62(22):6659–66.

78.Leong PL, Andrews GA, Johnson DE, Dyer KF, Xi S, Mai JC, et al. (2003) Targeted inhibition of Stat3 with a decoy oligonucleotide abrogates head and neck can-cer cell growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,100(7):4138–43. doi:10.1073/ pnas.

79.Senft C, Priester M, Polacin M, Schröder K, Seifert V, Kögel D, et al. (2011).Inhibition of the

JAK-2/STAT3 signaling pathway impedes the

migratory and invasive potential of human

g l i o b l a s t o m a c e l l s . J N e u r o o n c o l ,101(3):393–403. doi:10.1007/s11060-010- 0273-y

80. Yang YP, Chang YL, Huang PI, Chiou GY, Tseng

LM, Chiou SH, et al. (2012)

Resveratrol

suppresses tumorigenicity and

enhances

radiosensitivity in primary glioblastoma tumor initiating cells by inhibiting the STAT3 axis. J C e l l P h y s i o l , 2 2 7 ( 3 ) : 9 7 6 – 9 3 . doi:10.1002/jcp.22806

81.Gariboldi MB, Ravizza R, Monti E. (2010) .The IGFR1 inhibitor NVP-AEW541 disrupts a pro- survival and pro-angiogenic IGF-STAT3-HIF1 pathway in human glioblastoma cells. Biochem P h a r m a c o l , 8 0 ( 4 ) : 4 5 5 – 6 2 . doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.05.011

82.Villalva C, Martin-Lannerée S, Cortes U, Dkhissi F, Wager M, Le Corf A, et al. (2011). STAT3 is essential for the maintenance of neurosphere- initiating tumor cells in patients with glioblastomas: a potential for targeted therapy? Int J Cancer, 128(4):826–38. doi:10.1002/ijc. 25416

83.Fuh B, Sobo M, Cen L, Josiah D, Hutzen B, Cisek K, et al. (2009). LLL-3 inhibits STAT3 activity, suppresses glioblastoma cell growth and prolongs survival in a mouse glioblastoma model. Br J Cancer ,100(1):106–12. doi:10.1038/ sj.bjc.6604793

84.Chiou SH, Wang M-L, Chou Y-T, Chen C-J,

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 154

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

Hong C-F, Hsieh W-J, et al. (2010). Coexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhances malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma by inducing cancer stem cell- like properties and epitheli-al-mesenchymal t r a n s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . C a n c e r R e s , 70 ( 2 4 ) : 1 0 4 3 3 – 4 4 . d o i : 1 0 . 11 5 8 / 0 0 0 8 - 5472.CAN-10-2638

85.Bourguignon LY, Peyrollier K, Xia W, Gilad E. (2008). Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction activates stem cell marker Nanog, Stat-3-mediated MDR1 gene expression, and ankyrin-regulated multidrug efflux in breast and ovarian tumor cells. J Biol Chem, 283(25):17635–51. doi:10.1074/ jbc.M800109200

86.Bourguignon LY, Spevak CC, Wong G, Xia W, Gilad E. (2009).Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with protein kinase C promotes oncogenic signaling by the stem cell marker Nanog and the production of microRNA-21, leading to down-regulation of the

tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, anti-apoptosis, and chemotherapy resistance in breast tumor cells. J B i o l C h e m , 2 8 4 ( 3 9 ) : 2 6 5 3 3 – 4 6 . doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.027466

87.Chiou SH, Yu C-C, Huang C-Y, Lin S-C, Liu C-J, Tsai T-H, et al. (2008).Positive correlations of

Oct-4 and Nanog in oral cancer stem-like cells and high- grade oral squamous cell carcinoma. C l i n C a n c e r R e s , 1 4 ( 1 3 ) : 4 0 8 5 – 9 5 . doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4404

88.Jeter CR, Liu B, Liu X, Chen X, Liu C, Calhoun- Davis T, et al.(2011).NANOG promotes cancer stem cell characteristics and prostate cancer resistance to androgen deprivation. Oncogene ,30(36):3833–45. doi:10.1038/ onc.2011.114

89.Clement V, Sanchez P, De Tribolet N, Radovanovic I, i Altaba AR. (2007). HEDGEHOG-GLI1 signaling regulates human glioma growth, cancer stem cell self-renewal, and tumorigenicity. Curr

B i o l , 1 7 ( 2 ) : 1 6 5 – 7 2 . doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.01.024

90.Zbinden M, Duquet A, Lorente-Trigos A, Ngwabyt S-N, Borges I, Ruiz I Altaba A. (2010). NANOG regulates glioma stem cells and is essential in vivo acting in a cross-functional network with GLI1 and p53. EMBO J 29: 2659–2674

91.Po A, Ferretti E, Miele E, De Smaele E, Paganelli A, Canettieri G, et al. (2010). Hedgehog controls neural stem cells through p53-independent regulation of Nanog. EMBO J, 29(15):2646–58. doi:10.1038/emboj.2010.131

92.Zbinden M, Duquet A, Lorente-Trigos A, Ngwabyt

SN, Borges I, i Altaba AR. (2010). NANOG regulates glioma stem cells and is essential in vivo acting in a cross-functional network with GLI1 and p53. EMBO J, 29(15):2659–74. doi:10.1038/emboj.2010.137

93.Niu CS, Yang Y, Cheng C-D. (2013). MiR-134 regulates the proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma cells by reducing Nanog expression. Int J Oncol, 42(5):1533–40. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1844

94.Wang X, Dai J. (2010).Concise review: isoforms of OCT4 contribute to the confusing diversity in stem cell biology. Stem Cells, 28:885–893.

95.Loh Y-H, Wu Q, Chew J-L, Vega VB, Zhang W, Chen X, et al. (2006). The Oct4 and Nanog transcription network regulates pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Genet ,38(4):431–40. doi:10.1038/ng1760

96.Möröy T, Fisher P, Guidos C, Ma A, Zimmerman K, Tesfaye A, et al. (1990).IgH enhancer deregulated expression of L-myc: abnormal T lymphocyte develop - ment and T cell lymphomagenesis. EMBO J ,9(11):3659.

97.Dang CV, Resar LM, Emison E, Kim S, Li Q, Prescott JE, et al. (1999). Function of the c-Myc oncogenic transcription factor. Exp Cell Res,253(1):63–77. doi:10.1006/excr.1999.4686

98.Coller HA, Grandori C, Tamayo P, Colbert T, Lander ES, Eisenman RN, et al. (2000). Expression analysis with oligonucleotide microarrays reveals that MYC regulates genes involved in growth, cell cycle, signaling, and adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ,97(7):3260–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.7.3260

99.Palomero T, Lim WK, Odom DT, Sulis ML, Real PJ, Margolin A, et al. (2006). NOTCH1 directly regulates c-MYC and activates a feed-forward-

loop transcriptional network promoting leukemic cell growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1 0 3 ( 4 8 ) : 1 8 2 6 1 – 6 . doi:10.1073/pnas.0606108103

100.Takahashi K, Okita K, Nakagawa M, Yamanaka S. (2007). Induction of pluripo-tent stem cells

from fibroblast cultures. Nat Protoc, 2(12):3081–9. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.418

101.Gurel B, Iwata T, Koh CM, Jenkins RB, Lan F, Van Dang C, et al. (2008). Nuclear MYC protein overexpression is an early alteration in human prostate carcino - genesis . Mod Pathol ,21(9):1156–67. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2008.111

102.Dubik D, Dembinski TC, Shiu RP. (1987).

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 155

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

Stimulation of c-myc oncogene expression associated with estrogen-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res, 47(24 Pt 1):6517–21.

103.Chen CR, Kang Y, Massagué J. (2001). Defective repression of c-myc in breast cancer cells: a loss at the core of the transforming growth factor β growth arrest program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98(3):992–9. doi:10.1073/ pnas.98.3.992

104.Little CD, Nau MM, Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Minna JD. (1983) Amplification and expression of the c-myc oncogene in human lung cancer cell lines. Nature,306:194–6. doi:10.1038/306194a0

105.Lewis BC, Klimstra DS, Varmus HE. (2003). The c-myc and PyMT oncogenes induce different tumor types in a somatic mouse model for pancreatic cancer. Genes Dev, 17(24):3127–38. doi:10.1101/gad.1140403

106.Bigner SH, Friedman HS, Vogelstein B, Oakes WJ, Bigner DD.(1990).Amplification of the c- myc gene in human medulloblastoma cell lines and xenografts. Cancer Res, 50(8):2347–50.

107.Zheng H, Ying H, Yan H, Kimmelman A, Hiller D, Chen A-J, et al. (2008). PTEN and p53 converge on c-Myc to control differentiation, self-renewal, and trans-formation of normal and neoplastic stem cells in glioblastoma. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

108.Nakagawa M, Koyanagi M, Tanabe K, Takahashi K, Ichisaka T, Aoi T, et al. (2008). Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts. Nat Biotechnol, 26(1):101–6. doi:10.1038/ nbt1374

109.Rao G, Pedone CA, Coffin CM, Holland EC, Fults DW. (2003) c-Myc enhances sonic hedgehog-induced medulloblastoma formation from nestin-expressing neural progenitors in mice. Neoplasia ,5(3):198–204. doi:10.1016/ S1476-5586(03)80052-0

110.Wang J, Wang H, Li Z, Wu Q, Lathia JD, McLendon RE, et al. (2008). c-Myc is required for maintenance of glioma cancer stem cells. PLoS One,3(11):e3769. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003769

111.Herms JW, von Loewenich FD, Behnke J, Markakis E, Kretzschmar HA. (1999). c-Myc oncogene family expression in glioblastoma and survival . Surg Neurol, 51(5):536 – 42 . doi:10.1016/S0090-3019(98)00028-7

112.Dang DT, Pevsner J, Yang VW. (2000). The biology of the mammalian Krüppel-like family of

transcription factors. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 3 2 ( 11 ) : 11 0 3 – 2 1 . d o i : 1 0 . 1 0 1 6 / S 1 3 5 7 - 2725(00)00059-5

113.Zhao W, Ji X, Zhang F, Li L, Ma L. (2012).Embryonic stem cell markers. Molecules, 17(6):6196–236. doi:10.3390/molecules17066196

114.Bieker JJ.(2001).Krüppel-like factors: three fingers in many pies. J Biol Chem, 276(37):34355–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.R100043200

115.Ivey KN, Muth A, Arnold J, King FW, Yeh R-F, Fish JE, et al. (2008).MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 2(3):219–29. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.01.016

116.Nakatake Y, Fukui N, Iwamatsu Y, Masui S, Takahashi K, Yagi R, et al. (2006)Klf4 cooperates with Oct3/4 and Sox2 to activate the Lefty1 core promoter in embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol, 26(20):7772–82. doi:10.1128/ MCB.00468-06

117.Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. (2006).Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell,126(4):663–76. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024

118.Schoenhals M, Kassambara A, De Vos J, Hose D, Moreaux J, Klein B.(2009). Embryonic stem cell markers expression in cancers. Biochem Biophys R e s C o m m u n , 3 8 3 ( 2 ) : 1 5 7 – 6 2 . doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.156

119.Yu F, Li J, Chen H, Fu J, Ray S, Huang S, et al. (2011). Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is required for maintenance of breast cancer stem cells and for cell migration and invasion. Oncogene 30(18):2161–72. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.591

120.Foster KW, Ren S, Louro ID, Lobo-Ruppert SM, McKie-Bell P, Grizzle W, et al. (1999). Oncogene expression cloning by retroviral transduction of adenovirus E1A-immortalized rat kidney RK3E cells: transformation of a host with epithelial features by c-MYC and the zinc finger protein GKLF. Cell Growth Differ, 10(6):423–34.

121.Foster KW, Liu Z, Nail CD, Li X, Fitzgerald TJ, Bailey SK, et al. (2005). Induction of KLF4 in

b a s a l k e r a t i n o c y t e s b l o c k s t h e proliferation–differentiation switch and initiates squamous epithelial dysplasia. Oncogene ,24(9):1491–500. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208307

122.Wei D, Kanai M, Huang S, Xie K . (2005).Emerging role of KLF4 in human gas-

t r o i n t e s t i n a l c a n c e r. C a r c i n o g e n e s i s , 27(1):23–31. doi:10.1093/carcin/ bgi243

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 156

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

123.Wang J, Place RF, Huang V, Wang X, Noonan EJ, Magyar CE, et al. (2010).Prognostic value and function of KLF4 in prostate cancer: RNAa and vector-mediated over-expression identify KLF4 as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth and migration. Cancer Res, 70(24):10182–91. doi:10.1158/0008-5472. CAN-10-2414

124.Chen H-Y, Lin Y-M, Chung H-C, Lang Y-D, Lin C-J, Huang J, et al. (2012).miR-103/107 promote metastasis of colorectal cancer by targeting the metastasis suppressors DAPK and KLF4. Cancer Res ,72(14):3631–41. doi:10.1158/0008- 5472.CAN-12-0667

125.Akaogi K, Nakajima Y, Ito I, Kawasaki S, Oie S, Murayama A, et al. (2009).KLF4 suppresses estrogen-dependent breast cancer growth by inhibiting the tran-scriptional activity of ERα. Oncogene, 28(32):2894–902. doi:10.1038/ onc.2009.151

126.Zhou Y, Hofstetter WL, He Y, Hu W, Pataer A, Wang L, et al. (2010). KLF4 inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion by suppression of SPARC expression. Cancer Biol The ,9(7):507–13. doi:10.4161/cbt.9.7.11106

127.ZhaoW, Hisamuddin IM, Nandan MO, Babbin BA, Lamb NE, Yang VW.(2004). Identification of Krüppel-like factor 4 as a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer. Oncogene ,23(2):395–402. doi:10.1038/ sj.onc.1207067

128.Yoon HS, Chen X, Yang VW. (2003). Krüppel-like factor 4 mediates p53-dependent G1/S cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. J Biol Chem, 278(4):2101–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M211027200

129.Rowland BD, Bernards R, Peeper DS. (2005). The KLF4 tumour suppressor is a transcriptional repressor of p53 that acts as a context-dependent oncogene. Nat Cell Biol, 7(11):1074–82. doi:10.1038/ncb1314

130.Klein WM, Wu BP, Zhao S, Wu H, Klein-Szanto AJ, Tahan SR. (2007).Increased expression of stem cell markers in malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol, 20(1):102–7. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800720

131.Gu G, Yuan J, Wills M, Kasper S. (2007). Prostate cancer cells with stem cell char-acteristics reconstitute the original human tumor in vivo. Cancer Res, 67(10):4807–15.doi:10.1158/0008- 5472.CAN-06-4608

132.Su H-T, Weng C-C, Hsiao P-J, Chen L-H, Kuo T- L, Chen Y-W, et al. (2013).Stem cell marker nestin is critical for TGF-β1-mediated tumor progression in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer

Res, 11(7):768 – 79 . doi:10 . 1158/1541 - 7786.MCR-12-0511

133.Krupkova O, Jr, Loja T, Zambo I, Veselska R. (2010). Nestin expression in human tumors and tumor cell lines. Neoplasma, 57:291–8.

134.Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, et al. (2004).Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature ,432(7015):396–401. doi:10.1038/nature03128

135.Beck S, Jin X, Yin J, et al. (2011) Identification of a peptide that interacts with Nestin protein expressed in brain cancer stem cells. Biomaterials,32:8518–28.

136.Bao S, Wu Q, McLendon RE, Hao Y, Shi Q, Hjelmeland AB, et al. (2006) Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response. Nature, 444(7120):756–60. doi:10.1038/ nature05236

137.Liu G, Yuan X, Zeng Z, Tunici P, Ng H, Abdulkadir IR, et al. (2006). Analysis of gene expression and chemoresistance of CD133+ cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. Mol Cancer, 5(1):67. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-5-67

138.Hatanpaa KJ, Hu T, Vemireddy V, Foong C,

Raisanen JM, Oliver D, et al. (2014) High expression of the stem cell marker nestin is an adverse prognostic factor in WHO grade II–III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas. J Neurooncol,117(1):183–9. doi:10.1007/s11060- 014-1376-7

139.Zhang M, Song T, Yang L, Chen R, Wu L, Yang Z, et al. (2008).Nestin and CD133: valuable stem cell-specific markers for determining clinical outcome of glioma patients. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 27(1):1–7. doi:10.1186/1756-9966-27-85

140.Staberg M, Villingshøj M, Stockhausen M, Poulsen H. (2014). epigenetic treatment and induction of differentiation in glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells leads to downregulation of EGFR, EGFRvIII and nestin together with reduced colony formation in vitro.

N e u r o o n c o l o g y, 1 6 ( S u p p l 2 ) : i i 3 1 – i i . doi:10.1093/neuonc/nou174.113

141. Frederiksen K, McKay R. (1988). Proliferation

and differentiation of rat neuroepithelial precursor cells in vivo. J Neurosci ,8(4):1144–51.

142.Lendahl U, Zimmerman LB, McKay RD. (1990).CNS stem cells express a new class of intermediate filament protein. Cell, 0(4):585–95. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90662-X

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 157

Jul - Dec 2017

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.4 NO.2

143.Ignatova TN, Kukekov VG, Laywell ED, Suslov ON, Vrionis FD, Steindler DA. (2002). Human cortical glial tumors contain neural stem-like cells expressing astroglial and neuronal markers in vitro. Glia, 39(3):19–206. doi:10.1002/glia.10094

144.Dahlstrand J, Lardelli M, Lendahl U. (1995). Nestin mRNA expression correlates with the central nervous system progenitor cell state in many, but not all, regions of developing central nervous system. Dev Brain Res,84(1):109–29. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(94)00162-S

145.Gomes FC, Paulin D, Moura Neto V. (1999).Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP): modulation by

growth factors and its implication in astrocyte d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . B r a z J M e d B i o l Res,32(5):619–31. doi:10.1590/ S0100- 879X1999000500016

146.Middeldorp J, Hol E. (2011) GFAP in health and disease. Prog Neurobiol, 93(3):421–43. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.01.005

147.Glass R, Synowitz M, Kronenberg G, Walzlein J- H, Markovic DS, Wang L-P, et al. (2005). Glioblastoma-induced attraction of endogenous neural precursor cells is associated with improved survival. J Neurosci ,25(10):2637–46. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5118-04.2005

148.Jung C, Foerch C, Schänzer A, Heck A, Plate K, Seifert V, et al. (2007).Serum GFAP is a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma multiforme. Brain, 130(12):3336–41. doi:10.1093/brain/awm263

149.Müller C, Holtschmidt J, Auer M, Heitzer E, Lamszus K, Schulte A, et al.(2014). Hematogenous dissemination of glioblastoma multiforme. Sci Transl Med,6(247):ra101–247. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3009095

150.Hamaya K, Doi K, Tanaka T, Nishimoto A. (1985). The determination of glial fibrillary acidic protein for the diagnosis and histogenetic study of central nervous system tumors: a study of 152 cases. Acta Med Okayama, 39(6):453–62.

151.Abaza MSI, Narayan RK, Atassi M. (1997). In vitro efficacy of anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein monoclonal antibodies against human malignant glioma cell lines. Cancer Sci, 88(11):1094–9.

152. J u n g C , U n t e r b e r g A , H a r t m a n n C.(2011).Diagnostic markers for glioblastoma. Histol Histopathol, 26(10):1327–41.

153.Yin AH, Miraglia S, Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Ogawa M, Leary AG, et al. (1997). AC133, a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Blood , 90(12):5002–12.

154.Fargeas CA, Corbeil D, Huttner WB. (2003). AC133 antigen, CD133, prominin-1, prominin-2, etc.: prominin family gene products in need of a rational nomen-clature. Stem Cells, 21(4):506–8. doi:10.1634/stemcells.21-4-506

155.Zeppernick F, Ahmadi R, Campos B, Dictus C, Helmke BM, Becker N, et al. (2008). Stem cell marker CD133 affects clinical outcome in glioma patients. Clin Cancer Res, 14(1):123–9. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0932

156Jhanwar Uniyal M, Labagnara M, Friedman M, Kwasnicki A, Murali R. (2015). Glioblastoma: molecular pathways, stem cells and therapeutic

t a r g e t s . C a n c e r s , 7 ( 2 ) : 5 3 8 – 5 5 . doi:10.3390/cancers7020538

157.Shmelkov SV, Butler JM, Hooper AT, Hormigo A, Kushner J, Milde T, et al. (2008). CD133 expression is not restricted to stem cells, and both CD133+ and CD133- metastatic colon cancer cells initiate tumors. J Clin Invest, 118(6):2111. doi:10.1172/JCI34401

158.Tamura K, Aoyagi M, Ando N, Ogishima T, Wakimoto H, Yamamoto M, et al. (2013)

.Expansion of CD133-positive glioma cells in recurrent de novo glioblastomas after radiotherapy and chemotherapy: laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg, 119(5):1145–55. doi:10.3171/2013.7.JNS122417

159.Yan X, Ma L, Yi D, Yoon J-g, Diercks A, Foltz G, et al. (2011).A CD133-related gene expression signature identifies an aggressive glioblastoma

subtype with excessive mutations. Proc Natl A c a d S c i U S A , 1 0 8 ( 4 ) : 1 5 9 1 – 6 . doi:10.1073/pnas.1018696108

160.Stamenkovic I, Amiot M, Pesando JM, Seed B. (1989). A lymphocyte molecule implicated in lymph node homing is a member of the cartilage link protein family. Cell, 56(6):1057–62. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90638-7

161.Lesley J, English N, Perschl A, Gregoroff J, Hyman R. (1995). Variant cell lines selected for alterations in the function of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 show differences in glycosylation. J Exp Med ,182(2):431–7. doi:10.1084/ jem.182.2.431

162.Sneath R, Mangham D. (1998). The normal

structure and function of CD44 and its role in n e o p l a s i a . M o l P a t h o l , 5 1 ( 4 ) : 1 9 1 . doi:10.1136/mp.51.4.191

163.Naor D, Nedvetzki S, Golan I, Melnik L, Faitelson Y. (2002).CD44 in cancer. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci,

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 158

Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme

39(6):527–79. doi:10.1080/10408360290795574

164.Prince M, Sivanandan R, Kaczorowski A, Wolf G, Kaplan M, Dalerba P, et al. (2007). Identification of

a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell

c a r c i n o m a . P r o c N a t l A c a d S c i U SA,104(3):973–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610117104

165.Joshua B, Kaplan MJ, Doweck I, Pai R, Weissman IL, Prince ME, et al. (2012). Frequency of cells

expressing CD44, a head and neck cancer stem c e l l m a r k e r : c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t u m o r aggressiveness. Head Neck , 34(1):42–9. doi:10.1002/hed.21699

166.Hermann PC, Huber SL, Herrler T, Aicher A, Ellwart JW, Guba M, et al. (2007) . Distinct populations of cancer stem cells determine tumor growth and meta-static activity in human pancreatic cancer. Cell Stem Cell, 1(3):313–23. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.06.002

167.Kaufmann M, von Minckwitz G, Heider K, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Sinn H. (1995). CD44 variant exon epitopes in primary breast cancer and length of s u r v i v a l . L a n c e t , 3 4 5 ( 8 9 5 0 ) : 6 1 5 – 9 . doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90521-9

168.Yu Q, Toole BP, (1997). Stamenkovic I. Induction of apoptosis of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells in vivo by disruption of tumor cell surface CD44 function. J Exp Med, 186(12):1985–96. doi:10.1084/jem.186.12.1985

169.Patrawala L, Calhoun T, Schneider-Broussard R, Li H, Bhatia B, Tang S, et al. (2006). Highly purified CD44+ prostate cancer cells from xenograft human tumors are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic progenitor cells. O n c o g e n e , 2 5 ( 1 2 ) : 1 6 9 6 – 7 0 8 . doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209327

170.Liu C, Kelnar K, Liu B, Chen X, Calhoun-Davis T, Li H, et al. (2011). The microRNA miR-34a inhibits prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis

by directly repressing CD44. Nat Med, 17(2):211–5. doi:10.1038/nm.2284

171.Kito H, Suzuki H, Ichikawa T, Sekita N, Kamiya N, Akakura K, et al. (2001). Hypermethylation of the CD44 gene is associated with progression and metastasis of human prostate cancer. Prostate, 49(2):110–5. doi:10.1002/pros.1124

172.Du L, Wang H, He L, Zhang J, Ni B, Wang X, et al. (2008). CD44 is of functional importance for colorectal cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res, 14(21):6751–60. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR- 08-1034

173.Wielenga VJ, Heider K-H, Johan G, Offerhaus A, Adolf GR, van den Berg FM, et al. (1993). Expression of CD44 variant proteins in human colorectal cancer is related to tumor progression. Cancer Res ,53(20):4754–6.

174.Eibl RH, Pietsch T, Moll J, Skroch-Angel P, Heider K-H, von Ammon K, et al. (1995). Expression of variant CD44 epitopes in human astrocytic brain t u m o r s . J N e u r o o n c o l , 2 6 ( 3 ) : 1 6 5 – 7 0 . doi:10.1007/BF01052619

175.Kaaijk P, Troost D, Morsink F, Keehnen RM, Leenstra S, Bosch DA, et al. (1995). Expression of CD44 splice variants in human primary brain tumors . J Neurooncol , 26 (3):185 – 90 . doi:10.1007/BF01052621

176.Asher R, Bignami A. (1992).Hyaluronate binding and CD44 expression in human glioblastoma cells and astrocytes. Exp Cell Res ,203(1):80–90. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(92)90042-7

177.Naruse M, Shibasaki K, Yokoyama S, Kurachi M, Ishizaki Y. (2013). Dynamic changes of CD44

expression from progenitors to subpopulations of astro-cytes and neurons in developing c e r e b e l l u m . P L o S O n e , 8 ( 1 ) :e53109 .

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053109

▄ ▄ ▄

How to cite this article : Bachchu Lal., Cancer Stem cell in glioblastoma multiforme, EJMR2017;4(2):146-159.

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.4 NO.2

Page: 159