ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH

VOL.5 NO.1

Short Communication

DOI:10.24041/ejmr2018.69

LANGUAGE IN MENTAL RETARDATION, SCHIZOPHRENIA AND

HEARING- IMPAIRED (DEAFNESS)

Hasibuddin

Department of Humanities

Kashi Institute of Technology, Varanasi

 

Received on : 10-07-2017

ABSTRACT

Accpected on : 23-04-2018

 

 

Address for correspondence

This article depicts the situation and mode of language in different cases.

Dr. Hasibuddin

 

Mental Retardation is considerably subaverage general intellectual

Department of Humanities

functioning existing concomitantly with deficits in adaptive behaviour and

Associate Professor, Kashi Institute of

manifested during the developmental period. Schizophrenia is a

Technology, Varanasi

multifaceted disorder whose etiology and specific characteristic for

Email: haseebuddin1@gmail.com

symptomology has not yet been fully established. Deafness is a receptive

Contact no: +91-9450536267

disorder in which the patient's auditory apparatus becomes dysfunctional

 

 

 

 

and causes severe linguistic handicap.

 

 

 

 

 

 

KEYWORDS: Mental Retardation, Schizophrenia, Deafness

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

around 9-10 years of age whereas the retardates

The present

study discusses language in

mental

acquire this ability at about 14-16 years although the

strategies of comprehension differ. The normal child

retardation,

Schizophrenia

and

deafness.

Mental

Retardation is intellectual disability characterized by

would know position of agent in a (English) passive

below average intelligence or mental ability and a lack

sentence whereas a retardated still considers the first

noun as the agent (3-4).

 

 

of skills indispensable for day-to-day living. People

 

 

with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new

Some of the most common signs of Mental

skills, but they learn them more slowly. A person is

Retardation are Talking late or having trouble with

considered intellectually disabled if he or she has an

talking. Speech Language Pathologists can very well

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of less than 70 to 75.

 

take care of the Mentally Retarded persons through

Schizophrenia is a mental illness in which a person

training (5).

 

 

becomes unable to link thought, emotion and

Language in Schizophrenia

 

 

behaviour,

leading

to withdrawal

from reality and

'Schizophrenia' was labeled by the Belgian

personal relationships (1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

psychiatrist Benedict Morel in 1860 as a syndrome,

Deafness is partial or complete hearing loss.

 

and introduced by the term 'Dementia Praecox' to

Discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

describe an insidious, progressive

personality

 

 

 

 

 

 

decompensation. Schizophrenia is characterized by

Language in Mental Retardation

 

 

 

 

 

 

detachment from reality and it basically involve a

Mental Retardation applies to children with metabolic

malfunctioning of the perceptual processes which

disorders like histidinemia, genetic disorders like

include inaccurate perception, impaired judgement,

Down's syndrome or Mongolism and to various brain

comprehension deficiency and self perception, and are

damage children such as encephalopathy. The

characterized by indefinite ego boundaries, distorted

language of mentally retarded people reveal that the

body imagery, implying vague, fluid percepts and

delay in the onset of babbling, appearance of first word

undifferentiated sexuality and physical omissions.

depends upon the child's Intelligence Quotient (IQ),

The language related to schizophrenia has reflections

the more delayed the onset of speech. The retardated

of a more basic thought. Deviations

in language

subjects make very slow

growth

in the areas of

behaviour are found that are invariable features of

utterance

length

development of

morphological

Schizophrenic behaviour. There is disturbance in the

inflections. It is observed that a retarded person is

use of

language. Schizophrenic languages

have a

generally less able to generalize to new contexts and

greater

tendency to repeat words, phrase

or other

instances (2).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

verbal units within small intervals than normal

Cromer (1974) observes that normal children acquire

individuals. The responses of schizophrenic patients

the ability to comprehend the complex sentences at

differ significantly from those of normal individuals.

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.5 NO.1

Page: 84

LANGUAGE IN MENTAL RETARDATION, SCHIZOPHRENIA AND HEARING- IMPAIRED (DEAFNESS)

Schizophrenics have more auditory misperception of stimulus words than normals. According to Benjamin and Watt (1968), there are two important kinds of confusion in the language of schizophrenics, firstly between concrete and abstract meanings and secondly between dominant and weak meanings (6-7).

Language disturbances in Schizophrenia may be best conceptualized as arising from an imbalance of activity across two streams of processing, one drawing upon semantic relationships with semantic memory and the other involving the use of combinatorial mechanisms to build propositional meaning. A Schizophrenic person has difficulty in recognizing the homonyms (8).

Language in the Hearing- Impaired (Deafness)

The deaf children lack verbal language and have a more limited educational practice. The deaf perceive the world through skilled and practiced eyes and language is at their fingertips. The main classification of hearing loss is based on where the interference lies in the auditory pathway (9).

Conducive deafness: It arises when there is interference with the transmission of sound to the inner ear.

Sensorineural deafness: It arises when the source of deafness (interference) lies within the inner ear or along the auditory nerve to the brain.

The other forms of hearing impaired are:

Tinnitus: A range of noises in the ear that can occur in the acute, debilitating form. It is a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age related hearing loss, ear injury or a circulatory system disorder. Tinnitus symptoms include the following type of noises in one's years, i.e. hissing, clicking, roaring, buzzing, etc. Preventive step is to take care of one's cardiovascular health.

Fluctuating: It is the hearing loss related to persistent middle ear infections.

Central or Cortical Deafness: There is loss of hearing sensitivity due to damage of the auditory nerve in the brain stem or in the hearing centres of cortex.

A deaf or hearing child born to deaf parents learn a sign language as a mother tongue producing a level of manual awareness and sophistication that is different from the deaf children of hearing parents who have learned to sign (10).

CONCLUSION

The Mentally Retarded person should be treated as a normal human being. The person should be involved in different activities of his or her interest with positivity and confidence. One should try to cherish and enjoy the little things in life. It is highly important to forgive oneself for things one has done in the past and move further in positive direction. This article invites the researchers to seriously think about new practical aspects and dimensions that may direct to new approaches for investigating of the young user's interaction behaviour development.

REFERENCES

1.Keefe, Richard & D. Harry Philip. Understanding Schizophrenia: A Guide to the New Research on Causes and Treatment. London: The Free Press. 2010.

2.Lenneberg, Eric H. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley. 1967.

3.Paivio, A. Dual Coding Theory and the Mental Lexicon. The Mental Lexicon, 5 (2): 205-230. 2010

4.Peter Mc Guffin, Owen Michael J. And Irving O Gottesman. Psychiatric Genetics and Genomics. Oxford University Presss. 2002.

5.Piaget, Jean. The Psychology of Intelligence, Routledge. 1997.

6.Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct. New York: Morrow. 1994.

7.Thaper, Romila. Early India. Berkeley: California University Press. 2002.

8.Travis, Lisa Demena. Inner Aspect: the Articulation of VP. In Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 80 Springer Publications. 2010.

9.Velupillai, Viveka. Pidgins, Creoles and Mixed Languages: An Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company. 2015.

10.Yule, George. The Study of Language, Cambridge: CUP. 1997.

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How to cite this article : Hisibuddin., Language in Mental Retardation, Schizophrenia and Hearing- Impaired (Deafness)

EJMR2018;5(1):84-85.

ERA’S JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, VOL.5 NO.1

Page: 85